以下为英语六级真题及答案

  2018年上半年全国大学英语四六级考试于6月16日进行,新浪教育24小时全程关注,为你带来第一手四六级考试资讯。以下为英语六级真题及答案:

So I'm here to talk to you about the walkable city. What is the walkable
city? Well, for want of a better definition, it's a city in which the
car is an optional instrument of freedom, rather than a prosthetic
device. And I'd like to talk about why we need the walkable city, and
I'd like to talk about how to do the walkable city.

  长对话1:

Most of the talks I give these days are about why we need it, but you
guys are smart. And also I gave that talk exactly a month ago, and you
can see it at TED.com. So today I want to talk about how to do it. In a
lot of time thinking about this, I've come up with what I call the
general theory of walkability. A bit of a pretentious term, it's a
little tongue-in-cheek, but it's something I've thought about for a long
time, and I'd like to share what I think I've figured out.

  A: 1.Tonight we have a special guest from the local establishment
the Prage Café。 Welcome。

In the American city, the typical American city — the typical American
city is not Washington, DC, or New York, or San Francisco; it's Grand
Rapids or Cedar Rapids or Memphis — in the typical American city in
which most people own cars and the temptation is to drive them all the
time, if you're going to get them to walk, then you have to offer a walk
that's as good as a drive or better. What does that mean? It means you
need to offer four things simultaneously: there needs to be a proper
reason to walk, the walk has to be safe and feel safe, the walk has to
be comfortable and the walk has to be interesting. You need to do all
four of these things simultaneously, and that's the structure of my talk
today, to take you through each of those.

  B: Hi, thanks for have a meal on your show。

The reason to walk is a story I learned from my mentors, Andrés Duany
and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, the founders of the New Urbanism movement.
And I should say half the slides and half of my talk today I learned
from them. It's the story of planning, the story of the formation of the
planning profession. When in the 19th century people were choking from
the soot of the dark, satanic mills, the planners said, hey, let's move
the housing away from the mills. And lifespans increased immediately,
dramatically, and we like to say the planners have been trying to repeat
that experience ever since.

  A: Thank you for joining us。 So please tell us why do decide to
open a café。

So there's the onset of what we call Euclidian zoning, the separation of
the landscape into large areas of single use. And typically when I
arrive in a city to do a plan, a plan like this already awaits me on the
property that I'm looking at. And all a plan like this guarantees is
that you will not have a walkable city, because nothing is located near
anything else. The alternative, of course, is our most walkable city,
and I like to say, you know, this is a Rothko, and this is a Seurat.
It's just a different way — he was the pointilist — it's a different way
of making places. And even this map of Manhattan is a bit misleading
because the red color is uses that are mixed vertically.

  B: Well, we saw the opportunity to offer something a little
special and different from other establishments。 Cafe certainly is a
very competitive market sector。 2.There are more than plenty in our
city, and we thought they are all rather similar to each other。
Wouldn’t you agree?

So this is the big story of the New Urbanists — to acknowledge that
there are only two ways that have been tested by the thousands to build
communities, in the world and throughout history. One is the traditional
neighborhood. You see here several neighborhoods of Newburyport,
Massachusetts, which is defined as being compact and being diverse —
places to live, work, shop, recreate, get educated — all within walking
distance. And it's defined as being walkable. There are lots of small
streets. Each one is comfortable to walk on. And we contrast that to the
other way, an invention that happened after the Second World War,
suburban sprawl, clearly not compact, clearly not diverse, and it's not
walkable, because so few of the streets connect, that those streets that
do connect become overburdened, and you wouldn't let your kid out on
them. And I want to thank Alex Maclean, the aerial photographer, for
many of these beautiful pictures that I'm showing you today.

  A: Certainly yes。 So how is your establishment any different?

So it's fun to break sprawl down into its constituent parts. It's so
easy to understand, the places where you only live, the places where you
only work, the places where you only shop, and our super-sized public
institutions. Schools get bigger and bigger, and therefore, further and
further from each other. And the ratio of the size of the parking lot to
the size of the school tells you all you need to know, which is that no
child has ever walked to this school, no child will ever walk to this
school. The seniors and juniors are driving the freshmen and the
sophomores, and of course we have the crash statistics to prove it.

  B: Well, since people we have rabbits wandering freely on the
place; our customers come in and enjoy their food and drinks, while a
little rabbit playing on their legs。 There is no other place like it。

And then the super-sizing of our other civic institutions like playing
fields — it's wonderful that Westin in the Ft. Lauderdale area has eight
soccer fields and eight baseball diamonds and 20 tennis courts, but look
at the road that takes you to that location, and would you let your
child bike on it? And this is why we have the soccer mom now. When I was
young, I had one soccer field, one baseball diamond and one tennis
court, but I could walk to it, because it was in my neighborhood.

  A: That’s amazing。 How do you come up with the idea?

Then the final part of sprawl that everyone forgot to count: if you're
going to separate everything from everything else and reconnect it only
with automotive infrastructure, then this is what your landscape begins
to look like. The main message here is: if you want to have a walkable
city, you can't start with the sprawl model. you need the bones of an
urban model. This is the outcome of that form of design, as is this. And
this is something that a lot of Americans want. But we have to
understand it's a two-part American dream. If you're dreaming for this,
you're also going to be dreaming of this, often to absurd extremes, when
we build our landscape to accommodate cars first. And the experience of
being in these places —

  B: So we thought why not rabbit? People love the rabbits, they
are very cute animals。

(Laughter)

  A: But it is safe? Do the rabbit ever bite people or do any
customer ever hurt the rabbits?

This is not Photoshopped. Walter Kulash took this slide. It's in Panama
City. This is a real place. And being a driver can be a bit of a
nuisance, and being a pedestrian can be a bit of a nuisance in these
places. This is a slide that epidemiologists have been showing for some
time now,

  B: It is perfectly safe both for rabbits and our customers。
3.Rabbits are very peaceful and safe。 They don’t bite。 Our rabbits are
regularly cleaned。 So there is no risks ever。 4.And as for our
customers, they are all animals lovers。 We will never try to hurt the
rabbits。 Sometimes some young child may get over excited and be a
little too rough。 But is never a serious matter。 On the contrary, the
café is a great experience for children。 A chance they learn how to
take care of the animals。

(Laughter)

  A: Well it is certainly the first time I heard of a café like
that。

The fact that we have a society where you drive to the parking lot to
take the escalator to the treadmill shows that we're doing something
wrong. But we know how to do it better.

  1。 What do we learn about the woman?

Here are the two models contrasted. I show this slide, which has been a
formative document of the New Urbanism now for almost 30 years, to show
that sprawl and the traditional neighborhood contain the same things.
It's just how big are they, how close are they to each other, how are
they interspersed together and do you have a street network, rather than
a cul-de-sac or a collector system of streets?

  2。 What does the woman say about the café in her city?

So when we look at a downtown area, at a place that has a hope of being
walkable, and mostly that's our downtowns in America's cities and towns
and villages, we look at them and say we want the proper balance of
uses. So what is missing or underrepresented? And again, in the typical
American cities in which most Americans live, it is housing that is
lacking. The jobs-to-housing balance is off. And you find that when you
bring housing back, these other things start to come back too, and
housing is usually first among those things. And, of course, the thing
that shows up last and eventually is the schools, because the people
have to move in, the young pioneers have to move in, get older, have
kids and fight, and then the schools get pretty good eventually.

  3。 How did Prage café guarantee the rabbit does not post a harmful
threat?

The other part of this part, the useful city part, is transit, and you
can have a perfectly walkable neighborhood without it. But perfectly
walkable cities require transit, because if you don't have access to the
whole city as a pedestrian, then you get a car, and if you get a car,
the city begins to reshape itself around your needs, and the streets get
wider and the parking lots get bigger and you no longer have a walkable
city. So transit is essential. But every transit experience, every
transit trip, begins or ends as a walk, and so we have to remember to
build walkability around our transit stations.

  4。 What did the woman say about their customers?

Next category, the biggest one, is the safe walk. It's what most
walkability experts talk about. It is essential, but alone not enough to
get people to walk. And there are so many moving parts that add up to a
walkable city.

  (李琳娜)

The first is block size. This is Portland, Oregon, famously 200-foot
blocks, famously walkable. This is Salt Lake City, famously 600-foot
blocks, famously unwalkable. If you look at the two, it's almost like
two different planets, but these places were both built by humans and in
fact, the story is that when you have a 200-foot block city, you can
have a two-lane city, or a two-to-four lane city, and a 600-foot block
city is a six-lane city, and that's a problem. These are the crash
statistics. When you double the block size — this was a study of 24
California cities — when you double the block size, you almost quadruple
the number of fatal accidents on non-highway streets.

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So how many lanes do we have? This is where I'm going to tell you what I
tell every audience I meet, which is to remind you about induced demand.
Induced demand applies both to highways and to city streets. And induced
demand tells us that when we widen the streets to accept the congestion
that we're anticipating, or the additional trips that we're anticipating
in congested systems, it is principally that congestion that is
constraining demand, and so that the widening comes, and there are all
of these latent trips that are ready to happen. People move further from
work and make other choices about when they commute, and those lanes
fill up very quickly with traffic, so we widen the street again, and
they fill up again. And we've learned that in congested systems, we
cannot satisfy the automobile.

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